Farmers today face rising energy costs and uncertainty about future energy policies that affect agriculture. Many farmers are responding by improving the energy efficiency of their operations and exploring alternatives to traditional fossil fuels such as wind, solar, and biofuel crops. Improving nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency is another important strategy. Fertilizer cost is important because it is tightly linked to energy prices, and excessive applications increase the release of nitrous oxide (N2O), a very potent greenhouse gas (GHG). More efficient fertilizer management is just one of many win-win strategies for farmers that make economic sense and also address concerns about GHG emissions and climate change.